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全球茶叶消费概况简析(二)

时间: 2022-01-10 18:23 来源: 中国茶叶流通协会 作者:信息宣传部

执笔人:Manuja Peiris  国际茶叶委员会执行主席

译者:于英杰

大多数中东国家2020年茶叶进口量也有所下降。伊朗的茶叶进口量下降35%,制裁事件使这一情况更加严重。非洲大陆的茶叶进口量在过去几年持续增长,但在2020年下降 4%,主要是疫情导致的运输延误和物流障碍。南非是一个例外,它的茶叶进口量有所增加。

Most Middle Eastern countries who boast of healthy per capita consumption levels also absorbed lower volumes in 2020. Imports into Iran declined by 35% last year with sanctions in place making matters worse. Imports into the African continent which have continued to grow in recent years, declined by 4% in 2020 and this is directly linked to delays of shipments and other logistical obstacles brought upon by the ongoing pandemic. South Africa was an exception with an increased intake.

智利的茶叶进口量也增长了17%。另外,波兰的茶叶需求增多,那里有许多茶叶零售包装工厂。

Imports into Chile also grew by 17% during the year. Another market showing an increase in demand was Poland where many tea retail packaging plants function.

在中国,国内茶叶消费量每年持续增长,增长量达7.5%以上。因为民众对茶叶的需求量不断增加,中国现在已经成为全球第九大茶叶进口国。

In China, there was no slowing down in the growth of domestic consumption during the year and yet again, a year-on-year consumption growth of more than 7.5% is noteworthy. Confirming the increasing demand for tea in the country, China has now moved up to 9th position amongst tea importing countries across the globe.

据了解,在印度,去年因为疫情,户外茶叶消费降低了10%,但是户内的消费量有所增长,两者抵消。由当地的草药、水果和鲜花混合制成的混合茶也较受欢迎。但随着产量下降,国内茶叶消费量也略有下降。

In India, it is understood that an approximate decline of 10% in out of home consumption last year owing to the pandemic has been largely offset by an increase of in-home consumption. It is also believed that the introduction of tea blends of locally-sourced herbs, fruits and flowers by start-up business ventures has also contributed positively in India. However, following the decline of production in the country, domestic consumption is known to have declined marginally.

尽管消费者面临无数挑战,但茶叶消费量持续有增无减。不过在2020年,全球茶叶消费量略有降低,约为587.9万吨(详见下图),去年数据为591.8万吨。中国和印度占了其中的60%。绿茶占全球茶叶消费量的三分之一。但除中国外,其它国家绿茶消费量并未增长。土耳其、巴基斯坦、俄罗斯联邦、英国、美国、印度尼西亚、埃及、日本和孟加拉国也是主要的茶叶消费国。全球茶叶消费量在过去10年增长32%。

In spite of the myriad number of challenges faced by the consumers, tea consumption worldwide continued unabated but overall global consumption in 2020 is likely to have been marginally lower than the previous year. Apparent global consumption for the year (Graph below) is estimated to be 5,879,000 metric tons against the previous year figure of 5,918,000 metric tons. China and India are responsible for 60% of this total. Led by China, Green Tea accounted for approximately one third of global consumption. However, except for China, there was no indication of a positive growth of Green Tea consumption in other countries during 2020. Turkey, Pakistan, Russian Federation, UK, USA, Indonesia, Egypt, Japan and Bangladesh are some of the other leading countries with high levels of consumption. The growth in apparent global consumption over the last 10 years is 32%.

分析世界各地的消费模式,很明显,对于那些居家饮茶并不是很普遍的国家,疫情期间的茶叶消费量是停滞或下降的。例如,在美国,食品服务的销售额下降了大约70%。

Analysing consumption patterns across the world, it is evident that in countries where a culture of in-home consumption of tea drinking is not prevalent, overall consumption in those countries remained stagnant or declined during the pandemic. For instance, in the USA, sales at food services are known to have decreased by approximately 70%, last year.

一般而言,餐厅、酒店、饮料摊在2020年大部分时间都是关闭状态,导致许多国家茶叶消费量降低。然而,在一些地方,顾客被限制去杂货店和超市,所以他们直接采购的茶叶数量增多。在疫情期间,人们会通过网络购买所需物品,一些消费者可能会觉得这种新方式更舒服,一些大品牌或是相对较新的品牌会更加关注这种销售模式。

Generally, the closure of restaurants, hotels, beverage stalls etc. over lengthy periods of time during the year resulted in reduced consumption of tea across many countries. Nevertheless, in some markets, the increase of direct sourcing of tea by consumers who were compelled to limit their visits to grocery shops and supermarkets was a positive development. With added reliance on e-retailers to source requirements during lockdown periods, some consumers are likely to be more comfortable with this new-found trend and major brands as well as relatively newer, lesser-known brands can be expected to pay more attention to this mode of sales.

2020年是特殊的一年,但近年来,许多国家的超市将茶叶作为一个附带商品来推动其他产品的销售,导致茶在人们眼中的形象有所降低。11月份,肯尼亚和英国签署了一项经济伙伴关系协议,旨在保证两国贸易免关税。肯尼亚从英国进口的产品包括汽车、药品和纸张,而英国主要从肯尼亚进口茶叶、咖啡、蔬菜和鲜花。

2020 was an exceptional year for obvious reasons but in recent years, the growing dominance of supermarkets, which use tea as a loss-leader in their basket of goods to push sales of other products has resulted in lowering the image of tea in the eyes of consumers in many countries.In November, Kenya and UK signed an Economic partnership agreement that is expected to guarantee tariff-free access to the two markets. Kenya’s significant imports from UK include vehicles, pharmaceuticals and paper whilst UK’s major imports from Kenya include tea, coffee, vegetables and flowers.

斯里兰卡倡议开展B2C促销活动,采用数字视频和网络等社交媒体来提高知名度。这是“狮”牌锡兰红茶在12国进行促销活动的一部分,这12国包括俄罗斯联邦、乌克兰、日本、中国、德国、智利、土耳其、伊朗、美国、阿联酋、澳大利亚和沙特阿拉伯。

The initiative by Sri Lanka to engage in a business to consumer (B2C) promotion campaign through a social media activity chain consisting of digital videos and web posters is a fresh move by them to raise awareness. This is understood to be as part of the proposed fresh Ceylon Black Tea promotional campaign with the ‘Lion’ logo in 12 countries, namely, The Russian Federation, Ukraine, Japan, China, Germany, Chile, Turkey, Iran, USA, UAE, Australia and Saudi Arabia.

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